Cross compile Bash for Android (Updated for Bash 4.4) with download links

Latest instructions for bash 4.4 and arm64 device architecture:
Step 1: Get and prepare the environment and toolchain:

mkdir ~/aarch64-toolchain/
wget http://releases.linaro.org/components/toolchain/binaries/latest-6/aarch64-linux-gnu/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.xz
tar xf gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.xz
export PATH=$PATH:~/aarch64-toolchain/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu/bin

Next get the bash source and build:

mkdir bashsrc
cd bashsrc
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.4.tar.gz

Get latest from http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/?C=M;O=D

tar xf bash-4.4.tar.gz
cd bash-4.4
mkdir /root/bashstatic
./configure --prefix=/root/bashstatic --host=aarch64-linux-gnu --enable-static-link --without-bash-malloc --enable-largefile --enable-alias --enable-history
export CFLAGS="-static"
make

We can also modify the line (add -static to the end) to read:
CFLAGS = -g -O2 -Wno-parentheses -Wno-format-security -static

Test the file to see whether it is ARM x64:

~/aarch64-toolchain/bash/bash-4.4 $file bash
bash: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, ARM aarch64, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 3.7.0, BuildID[sha1]=3e2a4fc358a13f74714907c7b454a9024675dbff, not stripped
[/bash]

Download “bash 4.4 for arm64” bash.zip – Downloaded 14 times – 4 MB

Older post:
Step 1: Downloading and installing the toolchain

This is the difficult step. Once this is done, usually compiling is a no-brainer.

The following steps use the latest Codesourcery compiler and worked for bash 4.3 on Debian squeeze host.

To get the latest Codesourcery toolchain, Visit the Codesourcery home at http://www.mentor.com/embedded-software/sourcery-tools/sourcery-codebench/editions/lite-edition/ and under “ARM Processors”, click on “Download the GNU/Linux release”, enter your user details. The download link will be mailed to your email address in a couple of seconds.

Clicking on the link in the email will take you to a page with a list of releases and a link to the one you chose. For me, it was https://sourcery.mentor.com/GNUToolchain/release2795. Clicking on it will give you the following options: IA32 GNU/Linux Installer, IA32 Windows Installer and advanced options. Click on IA32 GNU/Linux Installer to download the bin file.

Now, you need to install certain dependencies for the toolchain, and the toolchain itself:

apt-get install ia32-libs ia32-libs-gtk
wget https://sourcery.mentor.com/GNUToolchain/kbattach150/getlibs-all.deb
sudo dpkg -i getlibs-all.deb
getlibs -p xulrunner-1.9.2
wget https://sourcery.mentor.com/GNUToolchain/package12815/public/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/arm-2014.05-29-arm-none-linux-gnueabi.bin
/bin/sh arm-2014.05-29-arm-none-linux-gnueabi.bin -console

Step 2: Setup the environment

Now you need to setup your environment to have certain environmental variables for cross compiling and pointing to the toolchain path. You dont want to use your system compiler to compile these files do you (those files cant be run on your phone/tablet)?

export CROSS_COMPILE="/root/MentorGraphics/Sourcery_CodeBench_Lite_for_ARM_GNU_Linux/bin/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc"
export PATH=/root/MentorGraphics/Sourcery_CodeBench_Lite_for_ARM_GNU_Linux/bin:$PATH

Step 3: Getting and preparing the source code
Now you will need to download the latest bash source code, extract it.

cd ~/
mkdir bashsrc
cd bashsrc
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.3.tar.gz
tar -xvvf bash-4.3.tar.gz

Step 4: Compiling
You will now compile and then ‘make’ the binaries.

mkdir /root/bashstatic
cd bash-4.3
./configure --prefix=/root/bashstatic --host=arm-none-linux-gnueabi --enable-static-link --without-bash-malloc --enable-largefile --enable-alias --enable-history

You will need to enable a “-static” flag to compile a static bash.
First see where the line CFLAGS comes in:
grep -in ‘CFLAGS’ Makefile
emacs Makefile

Edit Makefile so that CFLAGS reads like this:

CFLAGS = -g -O2 -static[/code]

Now you can make and install the binaries.
make install

Test with `file /root/bashstatic/bin/bash`[/bash]

Attached:
bash:

Download “bash” bash.4.3.0(1)-release_arm-none-linux-gnueabi.zip – Downloaded 300 times – 1 MB


busybox:

Download “busybox” busybox.1.23.0.zip – Downloaded 156 times – 1 MB


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.

Set .bashrc for Android ARM cross compiled bash

Set .bashrc and copy to / (root folder) and, /home ($HOME)

Use a default shell with adb

adb shell /system/bin/bash

I tried changing the default shell with the console process

[email protected]:~/kernel/bootimg/ramdisk$ grep -n 'console' init.rc
168:    copy /proc/apanic_console /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
169:    chown root log /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
170:    chmod 0640 /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
176:    write /proc/apanic_console 1
636:service console /system/bin/sh
638:    console
642:service console_user /system/bin/sh
644:    console
650:    start console
653:    start console_user

To:

[email protected]:~/kernel/bootimg/ramdisk$ grep -n 'console' init.rc
168:    copy /proc/apanic_console /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
169:    chown root log /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
170:    chmod 0640 /data/dontpanic/apanic_console
176:    write /proc/apanic_console 1
636:service console /system/bin/bash
638:    console
642:service console_user /system/bin/bash
644:    console
650:    start console
653:    start console_user

Create a boot.img and flash the new kernel..


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.

Cross compile static e2fsprogs for Android

Get the latest version. Alternate locations here.

I worked with 1.42.6. Download it and extract.

wget http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/tytso/e2fsprogs/v1.42.6/e2fsprogs-1.42.6.tar.bz2
tar -jxvvf e2fsprogs-1.42.6.tar.bz2
cd e2fsprogs-1.42.6
mkdir ~/e2progs
./configure --prefix=/home/droidzone/e2progs --host=arm-linux-gnueabihf
kate Makefile

Add -static to CFLAGS.

The final CFLAGS look like this:

CFLAGS = -g -O2 -static

make and install:

make
make install

The final binaries are put in ~/e2progs/sbin/

The final file is said to be dynamically linked, but I doubt if that’s actually true, since under lib, there’s only one file: e2initrd_helper

file ~/e2progs/sbin/e2fsck 
/home/droidzone/e2progs/sbin/e2fsck: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, ARM, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.31, not stripped

 


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.

Compiling statically linked Busybox for Android (arm) devices

******* INSTRUCTIONS (updated 09 Apr 2017 ) *******
Step 1: Get and prepare toolchain and configure environment:

mkdir ~/aarch64-toolchain/
wget http://releases.linaro.org/components/toolchain/binaries/latest-6/aarch64-linux-gnu/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.xz
tar xf gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.xz
export PATH=$PATH:~/aarch64-toolchain/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu/bin

Step 2: Get source for busybox and install

cd aarch64-toolchain/
wget https://busybox.net/downloads/snapshots/busybox-snapshot.tar.bz2
export PATH=$PATH:~/aarch64-toolchain/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu/bin/
tar xf busybox-snapshot.tar.bz2 
cd busybox
export CROSS_COMPILE="/root/aarch64-toolchain/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-"
sudo apt-get install libncurses-dev
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE="$CROSS_COMPILE" menuconfig
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE="$CROSS_COMPILE" 

busybox should now be available in this directory. Let’s test it:

file busybox
busybox: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, ARM aarch64, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 3.7.0, BuildID[sha1]=b91832a884c7ab10fed01b5b186128cc842e68c5, stripped

There you go-a static busybox for your Android device

Download “Busybox 1.27.0” busybox.zip – Downloaded 1 time – 1 MB

******* INSTRUCTIONS (updated 06 Aug 2014 ) *******

apt-get install ia32-libs ia32-libs-gtk
wget https://sourcery.mentor.com/GNUToolchain/kbattach150/getlibs-all.deb
sudo dpkg -i getlibs-all.deb
getlibs -p xulrunner-1.9.2
wget https://sourcery.mentor.com/GNUToolchain/package12815/public/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/arm-2014.05-29-arm-none-linux-gnueabi.bin
/bin/sh arm-2014.05-29-arm-none-linux-gnueabi.bin -console
export PATH=/root/MentorGraphics/Sourcery_CodeBench_Lite_for_ARM_GNU_Linux/bin:$PATH

wget http://www.busybox.net/downloads/snapshots/busybox-20140805.tar.bz2
tar vjxf busybox-20140805.tar.bz2
cd busybox/
export CROSS_COMPILE="/root/MentorGraphics/Sourcery_CodeBench_Lite_for_ARM_GNU_Linux/bin/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-"
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE="$CROSS_COMPILE" menuconfig
make

Working config file:

#
# Automatically generated make config: don't edit
# Busybox version: 1.23.0.git
# Wed Aug  6 06:34:13 2014
#
CONFIG_HAVE_DOT_CONFIG=y

#
# Busybox Settings
#

#
# General Configuration
#
CONFIG_DESKTOP=y
# CONFIG_EXTRA_COMPAT is not set
CONFIG_INCLUDE_SUSv2=y
# CONFIG_USE_PORTABLE_CODE is not set
CONFIG_PLATFORM_LINUX=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BUFFERS_USE_MALLOC=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_BUFFERS_GO_ON_STACK is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_BUFFERS_GO_IN_BSS is not set
CONFIG_SHOW_USAGE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_COMPRESS_USAGE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INSTALLER=y
CONFIG_INSTALL_NO_USR=y
# CONFIG_LOCALE_SUPPORT is not set
CONFIG_UNICODE_SUPPORT=y
# CONFIG_UNICODE_USING_LOCALE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CHECK_UNICODE_IN_ENV is not set
CONFIG_SUBST_WCHAR=63
CONFIG_LAST_SUPPORTED_WCHAR=767
# CONFIG_UNICODE_COMBINING_WCHARS is not set
# CONFIG_UNICODE_WIDE_WCHARS is not set
# CONFIG_UNICODE_BIDI_SUPPORT is not set
# CONFIG_UNICODE_NEUTRAL_TABLE is not set
# CONFIG_UNICODE_PRESERVE_BROKEN is not set
# CONFIG_PAM is not set
CONFIG_LONG_OPTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DEVPTS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CLEAN_UP is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_UTMP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WTMP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_PIDFILE=y
CONFIG_PID_FILE_PATH="/var/run"
CONFIG_FEATURE_SUID=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SUID_CONFIG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SUID_CONFIG_QUIET=y
# CONFIG_SELINUX is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_PREFER_APPLETS is not set
CONFIG_BUSYBOX_EXEC_PATH="/proc/self/exe"
CONFIG_FEATURE_SYSLOG=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_HAVE_RPC is not set

#
# Build Options
#
CONFIG_STATIC=y
# CONFIG_PIE is not set
# CONFIG_NOMMU is not set
# CONFIG_BUILD_LIBBUSYBOX is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INDIVIDUAL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SHARED_BUSYBOX is not set
CONFIG_LFS=y
CONFIG_CROSS_COMPILER_PREFIX=""
CONFIG_SYSROOT=""
CONFIG_EXTRA_CFLAGS=""
CONFIG_EXTRA_LDFLAGS=""
CONFIG_EXTRA_LDLIBS=""

#
# Debugging Options
#
# CONFIG_DEBUG is not set
# CONFIG_DEBUG_PESSIMIZE is not set
# CONFIG_UNIT_TEST is not set
# CONFIG_WERROR is not set
CONFIG_NO_DEBUG_LIB=y
# CONFIG_DMALLOC is not set
# CONFIG_EFENCE is not set

#
# Installation Options ("make install" behavior)
#
CONFIG_INSTALL_APPLET_SYMLINKS=y
# CONFIG_INSTALL_APPLET_HARDLINKS is not set
# CONFIG_INSTALL_APPLET_SCRIPT_WRAPPERS is not set
# CONFIG_INSTALL_APPLET_DONT is not set
# CONFIG_INSTALL_SH_APPLET_SYMLINK is not set
# CONFIG_INSTALL_SH_APPLET_HARDLINK is not set
# CONFIG_INSTALL_SH_APPLET_SCRIPT_WRAPPER is not set
CONFIG_PREFIX="./_install"

#
# Busybox Library Tuning
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_SYSTEMD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_RTMINMAX=y
CONFIG_PASSWORD_MINLEN=6
CONFIG_MD5_SMALL=1
CONFIG_SHA3_SMALL=1
CONFIG_FEATURE_FAST_TOP=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_ETC_NETWORKS is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_USE_TERMIOS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_MAX_LEN=1024
# CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_VI is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_HISTORY=255
CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_SAVEHISTORY=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_SAVE_ON_EXIT is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_REVERSE_SEARCH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAB_COMPLETION=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_USERNAME_COMPLETION is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_FANCY_PROMPT=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_ASK_TERMINAL is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_NON_POSIX_CP=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_CP_MESSAGE is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_COPYBUF_KB=4
CONFIG_FEATURE_SKIP_ROOTFS=y
# CONFIG_MONOTONIC_SYSCALL is not set
CONFIG_IOCTL_HEX2STR_ERROR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HWIB=y

#
# Applets
#

#
# Archival Utilities
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_SEAMLESS_XZ=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SEAMLESS_LZMA=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SEAMLESS_BZ2=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SEAMLESS_GZ=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SEAMLESS_Z is not set
# CONFIG_AR is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_AR_LONG_FILENAMES is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_AR_CREATE is not set
# CONFIG_UNCOMPRESS is not set
CONFIG_GUNZIP=y
CONFIG_BUNZIP2=y
CONFIG_UNLZMA=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_LZMA_FAST is not set
CONFIG_LZMA=y
CONFIG_UNXZ=y
CONFIG_XZ=y
CONFIG_BZIP2=y
CONFIG_CPIO=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CPIO_O=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CPIO_P=y
# CONFIG_DPKG is not set
# CONFIG_DPKG_DEB is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_DPKG_DEB_EXTRACT_ONLY is not set
CONFIG_GZIP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_GZIP_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_GZIP_FAST=0
CONFIG_LZOP=y
# CONFIG_LZOP_COMPR_HIGH is not set
CONFIG_RPM=y
CONFIG_RPM2CPIO=y
CONFIG_TAR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_CREATE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_AUTODETECT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_FROM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_OLDGNU_COMPATIBILITY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_OLDSUN_COMPATIBILITY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_GNU_EXTENSIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_TO_COMMAND=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_UNAME_GNAME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_NOPRESERVE_TIME=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_TAR_SELINUX is not set
CONFIG_UNZIP=y

#
# Coreutils
#
CONFIG_BASENAME=y
CONFIG_CAT=y
CONFIG_DATE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DATE_ISOFMT=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_DATE_NANO is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_DATE_COMPAT=y
CONFIG_HOSTID=y
CONFIG_ID=y
CONFIG_GROUPS=y
CONFIG_SHUF=y
CONFIG_TEST=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TEST_64=y
CONFIG_TOUCH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOUCH_NODEREF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOUCH_SUSV3=y
CONFIG_TR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TR_CLASSES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TR_EQUIV=y
CONFIG_UNLINK=y
CONFIG_BASE64=y
CONFIG_WHO=y
CONFIG_USERS=y
CONFIG_CAL=y
CONFIG_CATV=y
CONFIG_CHGRP=y
CONFIG_CHMOD=y
CONFIG_CHOWN=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHOWN_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_CHROOT=y
CONFIG_CKSUM=y
CONFIG_COMM=y
CONFIG_CP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CP_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_CUT=y
CONFIG_DD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DD_SIGNAL_HANDLING=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DD_THIRD_STATUS_LINE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DD_IBS_OBS=y
CONFIG_DF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DF_FANCY=y
CONFIG_DIRNAME=y
CONFIG_DOS2UNIX=y
CONFIG_UNIX2DOS=y
CONFIG_DU=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DU_DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE_1K=y
CONFIG_ECHO=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FANCY_ECHO=y
CONFIG_ENV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ENV_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_EXPAND=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_EXPAND_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_EXPR=y
CONFIG_EXPR_MATH_SUPPORT_64=y
CONFIG_FALSE=y
CONFIG_FOLD=y
CONFIG_FSYNC=y
CONFIG_HEAD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FANCY_HEAD=y
CONFIG_INSTALL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INSTALL_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_LN=y
CONFIG_LOGNAME=y
CONFIG_LS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_FILETYPES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_FOLLOWLINKS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_RECURSIVE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_SORTFILES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_TIMESTAMPS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_USERNAME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_COLOR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LS_COLOR_IS_DEFAULT=y
CONFIG_MD5SUM=y
CONFIG_MKDIR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MKDIR_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_MKFIFO=y
CONFIG_MKNOD=y
CONFIG_MV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MV_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_NICE=y
CONFIG_NOHUP=y
CONFIG_OD=y
CONFIG_PRINTENV=y
CONFIG_PRINTF=y
CONFIG_PWD=y
CONFIG_READLINK=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_READLINK_FOLLOW=y
CONFIG_REALPATH=y
CONFIG_RM=y
CONFIG_RMDIR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_RMDIR_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_SEQ=y
CONFIG_SHA1SUM=y
CONFIG_SHA256SUM=y
CONFIG_SHA512SUM=y
CONFIG_SHA3SUM=y
CONFIG_SLEEP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FANCY_SLEEP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FLOAT_SLEEP=y
CONFIG_SORT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SORT_BIG=y
CONFIG_SPLIT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SPLIT_FANCY=y
CONFIG_STAT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_STAT_FORMAT=y
CONFIG_STTY=y
CONFIG_SUM=y
CONFIG_SYNC=y
CONFIG_TAC=y
CONFIG_TAIL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FANCY_TAIL=y
CONFIG_TEE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TEE_USE_BLOCK_IO=y
CONFIG_TRUE=y
CONFIG_TTY=y
CONFIG_UNAME=y
CONFIG_UNEXPAND=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UNEXPAND_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_UNIQ=y
CONFIG_USLEEP=y
CONFIG_UUDECODE=y
CONFIG_UUENCODE=y
CONFIG_WC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WC_LARGE=y
CONFIG_WHOAMI=y
CONFIG_YES=y

#
# Common options
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE=y

#
# Common options for cp and mv
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_PRESERVE_HARDLINKS=y

#
# Common options for ls, more and telnet
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_AUTOWIDTH=y

#
# Common options for df, du, ls
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE=y

#
# Common options for md5sum, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha512sum, sha3sum
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_MD5_SHA1_SUM_CHECK=y

#
# Console Utilities
#
CONFIG_CHVT=y
CONFIG_FGCONSOLE=y
CONFIG_CLEAR=y
CONFIG_DEALLOCVT=y
CONFIG_DUMPKMAP=y
CONFIG_KBD_MODE=y
CONFIG_LOADFONT=y
CONFIG_LOADKMAP=y
CONFIG_OPENVT=y
CONFIG_RESET=y
CONFIG_RESIZE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_RESIZE_PRINT=y
CONFIG_SETCONSOLE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SETCONSOLE_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_SETFONT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SETFONT_TEXTUAL_MAP=y
CONFIG_DEFAULT_SETFONT_DIR=""
CONFIG_SETKEYCODES=y
CONFIG_SETLOGCONS=y
CONFIG_SHOWKEY=y

#
# Common options for loadfont and setfont
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_LOADFONT_PSF2=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LOADFONT_RAW=y

#
# Debian Utilities
#
CONFIG_MKTEMP=y
CONFIG_PIPE_PROGRESS=y
CONFIG_RUN_PARTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_RUN_PARTS_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_RUN_PARTS_FANCY=y
CONFIG_START_STOP_DAEMON=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_START_STOP_DAEMON_FANCY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_START_STOP_DAEMON_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_WHICH=y

#
# Editors
#
CONFIG_AWK=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_AWK_LIBM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_AWK_GNU_EXTENSIONS=y
CONFIG_CMP=y
CONFIG_DIFF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DIFF_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DIFF_DIR=y
CONFIG_ED=y
CONFIG_PATCH=y
CONFIG_SED=y
CONFIG_VI=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_MAX_LEN=4096
# CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_8BIT is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_COLON=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_YANKMARK=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_SEARCH=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_REGEX_SEARCH is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_USE_SIGNALS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_DOT_CMD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_READONLY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_SETOPTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_SET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_WIN_RESIZE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_ASK_TERMINAL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_UNDO=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_UNDO_QUEUE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VI_UNDO_QUEUE_MAX=256
CONFIG_FEATURE_ALLOW_EXEC=y

#
# Finding Utilities
#
CONFIG_FIND=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_PRINT0=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_MTIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_MMIN=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_PERM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_TYPE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_XDEV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_MAXDEPTH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_NEWER=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_INUM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_EXEC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_EXEC_PLUS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_USER=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_GROUP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_NOT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_DEPTH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_PAREN=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_SIZE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_PRUNE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_DELETE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_PATH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_REGEX=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_CONTEXT is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_FIND_LINKS=y
CONFIG_GREP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_GREP_EGREP_ALIAS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_GREP_FGREP_ALIAS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_GREP_CONTEXT=y
CONFIG_XARGS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_XARGS_SUPPORT_CONFIRMATION=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_XARGS_SUPPORT_QUOTES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_XARGS_SUPPORT_TERMOPT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_XARGS_SUPPORT_ZERO_TERM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_XARGS_SUPPORT_REPL_STR=y

#
# Init Utilities
#
CONFIG_BOOTCHARTD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BOOTCHARTD_BLOATED_HEADER=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BOOTCHARTD_CONFIG_FILE=y
CONFIG_HALT=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CALL_TELINIT is not set
CONFIG_TELINIT_PATH=""
CONFIG_INIT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_USE_INITTAB=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_KILL_REMOVED is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_KILL_DELAY=0
CONFIG_FEATURE_INIT_SCTTY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INIT_SYSLOG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_EXTRA_QUIET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INIT_COREDUMPS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INITRD=y
CONFIG_INIT_TERMINAL_TYPE="linux"
CONFIG_MESG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MESG_ENABLE_ONLY_GROUP=y

#
# Login/Password Management Utilities
#
CONFIG_ADD_SHELL=y
CONFIG_REMOVE_SHELL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SHADOWPASSWDS=y
CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP=y
CONFIG_USE_BB_SHADOW=y
CONFIG_USE_BB_CRYPT=y
CONFIG_USE_BB_CRYPT_SHA=y
CONFIG_ADDUSER=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ADDUSER_LONG_OPTIONS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CHECK_NAMES is not set
CONFIG_LAST_ID=60000
CONFIG_FIRST_SYSTEM_ID=100
CONFIG_LAST_SYSTEM_ID=999
CONFIG_ADDGROUP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ADDGROUP_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ADDUSER_TO_GROUP=y
CONFIG_DELUSER=y
CONFIG_DELGROUP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DEL_USER_FROM_GROUP=y
CONFIG_GETTY=y
CONFIG_LOGIN=y
# CONFIG_LOGIN_SESSION_AS_CHILD is not set
CONFIG_LOGIN_SCRIPTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NOLOGIN=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SECURETTY=y
CONFIG_PASSWD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_PASSWD_WEAK_CHECK=y
CONFIG_CRYPTPW=y
CONFIG_CHPASSWD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DEFAULT_PASSWD_ALGO="des"
CONFIG_SU=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SU_SYSLOG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SU_CHECKS_SHELLS=y
CONFIG_SULOGIN=y
CONFIG_VLOCK=y

#
# Linux Ext2 FS Progs
#
CONFIG_CHATTR=y
CONFIG_FSCK=y
CONFIG_LSATTR=y
# CONFIG_TUNE2FS is not set

#
# Linux Module Utilities
#
CONFIG_MODINFO=y
CONFIG_MODPROBE_SMALL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MODPROBE_SMALL_OPTIONS_ON_CMDLINE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MODPROBE_SMALL_CHECK_ALREADY_LOADED=y
# CONFIG_INSMOD is not set
# CONFIG_RMMOD is not set
# CONFIG_LSMOD is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_LSMOD_PRETTY_2_6_OUTPUT is not set
# CONFIG_MODPROBE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MODPROBE_BLACKLIST is not set
# CONFIG_DEPMOD is not set

#
# Options common to multiple modutils
#
# CONFIG_FEATURE_2_4_MODULES is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_TRY_MMAP is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_VERSION_CHECKING is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_KSYMOOPS_SYMBOLS is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_LOADINKMEM is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_LOAD_MAP is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INSMOD_LOAD_MAP_FULL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CHECK_TAINTED_MODULE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MODUTILS_ALIAS is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MODUTILS_SYMBOLS is not set
CONFIG_DEFAULT_MODULES_DIR=""
CONFIG_DEFAULT_DEPMOD_FILE=""

#
# Linux System Utilities
#
CONFIG_BLOCKDEV=y
CONFIG_FATATTR=y
CONFIG_FSTRIM=y
CONFIG_MDEV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MDEV_CONF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MDEV_RENAME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MDEV_RENAME_REGEXP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MDEV_EXEC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MDEV_LOAD_FIRMWARE=y
CONFIG_REV=y
CONFIG_ACPID=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ACPID_COMPAT=y
CONFIG_BLKID=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_BLKID_TYPE is not set
CONFIG_DMESG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DMESG_PRETTY=y
CONFIG_FBSET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FBSET_FANCY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FBSET_READMODE=y
CONFIG_FDFLUSH=y
CONFIG_FDFORMAT=y
CONFIG_FDISK=y
# CONFIG_FDISK_SUPPORT_LARGE_DISKS is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_FDISK_WRITABLE=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_AIX_LABEL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SGI_LABEL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SUN_LABEL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_OSF_LABEL is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_GPT_LABEL is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_FDISK_ADVANCED=y
CONFIG_FINDFS=y
CONFIG_FLOCK=y
CONFIG_FREERAMDISK=y
CONFIG_FSCK_MINIX=y
CONFIG_MKFS_EXT2=y
CONFIG_MKFS_MINIX=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MINIX2=y
# CONFIG_MKFS_REISER is not set
CONFIG_MKFS_VFAT=y
CONFIG_GETOPT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_GETOPT_LONG=y
CONFIG_HEXDUMP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HEXDUMP_REVERSE=y
CONFIG_HD=y
CONFIG_HWCLOCK=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HWCLOCK_LONG_OPTIONS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_HWCLOCK_ADJTIME_FHS is not set
CONFIG_IPCRM=y
CONFIG_IPCS=y
CONFIG_LOSETUP=y
CONFIG_LSPCI=y
CONFIG_LSUSB=y
CONFIG_MKSWAP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MKSWAP_UUID=y
CONFIG_MORE=y
CONFIG_MOUNT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_FAKE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_VERBOSE=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_HELPERS is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_LABEL=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_NFS is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_CIFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_FLAGS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_FSTAB=y
CONFIG_PIVOT_ROOT=y
CONFIG_RDATE=y
CONFIG_RDEV=y
CONFIG_READPROFILE=y
CONFIG_RTCWAKE=y
CONFIG_SCRIPT=y
CONFIG_SCRIPTREPLAY=y
CONFIG_SETARCH=y
CONFIG_SWAPONOFF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SWAPON_DISCARD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SWAPON_PRI=y
CONFIG_SWITCH_ROOT=y
CONFIG_UMOUNT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UMOUNT_ALL=y

#
# Common options for mount/umount
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_LOOP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MOUNT_LOOP_CREATE=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MTAB_SUPPORT is not set
CONFIG_VOLUMEID=y

#
# Filesystem/Volume identification
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_BTRFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_CRAMFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_EXFAT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_EXT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_F2FS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_FAT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_HFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_ISO9660=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_JFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_LINUXRAID=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_LINUXSWAP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_LUKS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_NILFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_NTFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_OCFS2=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_REISERFS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_ROMFS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_SQUASHFS is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_SYSV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_UDF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_VOLUMEID_XFS=y

#
# Miscellaneous Utilities
#
CONFIG_CONSPY=y
CONFIG_CROND=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CROND_D=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CROND_CALL_SENDMAIL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CROND_DIR="/var/spool/cron"
CONFIG_LESS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_MAXLINES=9999999
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_BRACKETS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_FLAGS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_MARKS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_REGEXP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_WINCH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_ASK_TERMINAL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_DASHCMD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LESS_LINENUMS=y
CONFIG_NANDWRITE=y
CONFIG_NANDDUMP=y
# CONFIG_RFKILL is not set
CONFIG_SETSERIAL=y
CONFIG_UBIATTACH=y
CONFIG_UBIDETACH=y
CONFIG_UBIMKVOL=y
CONFIG_UBIRMVOL=y
CONFIG_UBIRSVOL=y
CONFIG_UBIUPDATEVOL=y
CONFIG_WALL=y
CONFIG_ADJTIMEX=y
# CONFIG_BBCONFIG is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_COMPRESS_BBCONFIG is not set
CONFIG_BEEP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BEEP_FREQ=4000
CONFIG_FEATURE_BEEP_LENGTH_MS=30
CONFIG_CHAT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_NOFAIL=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_TTY_HIFI is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_IMPLICIT_CR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_SWALLOW_OPTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_SEND_ESCAPES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_VAR_ABORT_LEN=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_CHAT_CLR_ABORT=y
CONFIG_CHRT=y
CONFIG_CRONTAB=y
CONFIG_DC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_DC_LIBM=y
# CONFIG_DEVFSD is not set
# CONFIG_DEVFSD_MODLOAD is not set
# CONFIG_DEVFSD_FG_NP is not set
# CONFIG_DEVFSD_VERBOSE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_DEVFS is not set
CONFIG_DEVMEM=y
CONFIG_EJECT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_EJECT_SCSI=y
CONFIG_FBSPLASH=y
# CONFIG_FLASHCP is not set
# CONFIG_FLASH_LOCK is not set
# CONFIG_FLASH_UNLOCK is not set
# CONFIG_FLASH_ERASEALL is not set
CONFIG_IONICE=y
# CONFIG_INOTIFYD is not set
CONFIG_LAST=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_LAST_SMALL is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_LAST_FANCY=y
CONFIG_HDPARM=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_GET_IDENTITY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_SCAN_HWIF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_UNREGISTER_HWIF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_DRIVE_RESET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_TRISTATE_HWIF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_GETSET_DMA=y
CONFIG_MAKEDEVS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_MAKEDEVS_LEAF is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_MAKEDEVS_TABLE=y
CONFIG_MAN=y
CONFIG_MICROCOM=y
CONFIG_MOUNTPOINT=y
CONFIG_MT=y
CONFIG_RAIDAUTORUN=y
CONFIG_READAHEAD=y
CONFIG_RUNLEVEL=y
CONFIG_RX=y
CONFIG_SETSID=y
CONFIG_STRINGS=y
# CONFIG_TASKSET is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_TASKSET_FANCY is not set
CONFIG_TIME=y
CONFIG_TIMEOUT=y
CONFIG_TTYSIZE=y
CONFIG_VOLNAME=y
CONFIG_WATCHDOG=y

#
# Networking Utilities
#
CONFIG_NAMEIF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NAMEIF_EXTENDED=y
CONFIG_NBDCLIENT=y
CONFIG_NC=y
CONFIG_NC_SERVER=y
CONFIG_NC_EXTRA=y
# CONFIG_NC_110_COMPAT is not set
CONFIG_PING=y
CONFIG_PING6=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FANCY_PING=y
CONFIG_WHOIS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IPV6=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_UNIX_LOCAL is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_PREFER_IPV4_ADDRESS=y
# CONFIG_VERBOSE_RESOLUTION_ERRORS is not set
CONFIG_ARP=y
CONFIG_ARPING=y
CONFIG_BRCTL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BRCTL_FANCY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_BRCTL_SHOW=y
CONFIG_DNSD=y
CONFIG_ETHER_WAKE=y
CONFIG_FAKEIDENTD=y
CONFIG_FTPD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FTP_WRITE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FTPD_ACCEPT_BROKEN_LIST=y
CONFIG_FTPGET=y
CONFIG_FTPPUT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_FTPGETPUT_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_HOSTNAME=y
CONFIG_HTTPD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_RANGES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_USE_SENDFILE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_SETUID=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_BASIC_AUTH=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_AUTH_MD5=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_CGI=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_CONFIG_WITH_SCRIPT_INTERPR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_SET_REMOTE_PORT_TO_ENV=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_ENCODE_URL_STR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_ERROR_PAGES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_PROXY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_HTTPD_GZIP=y
CONFIG_IFCONFIG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFCONFIG_STATUS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFCONFIG_SLIP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFCONFIG_MEMSTART_IOADDR_IRQ=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFCONFIG_HW=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFCONFIG_BROADCAST_PLUS=y
CONFIG_IFENSLAVE=y
CONFIG_IFPLUGD=y
CONFIG_IFUPDOWN=y
CONFIG_IFUPDOWN_IFSTATE_PATH="/var/run/ifstate"
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_IP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_IP_BUILTIN=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_IFCONFIG_BUILTIN is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_IPV4=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_IPV6=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_MAPPING=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_IFUPDOWN_EXTERNAL_DHCP is not set
CONFIG_INETD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_SUPPORT_BUILTIN_ECHO=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_SUPPORT_BUILTIN_DISCARD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_SUPPORT_BUILTIN_TIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_SUPPORT_BUILTIN_DAYTIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_SUPPORT_BUILTIN_CHARGEN=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_RPC is not set
CONFIG_IP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_ADDRESS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_LINK=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_ROUTE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_TUNNEL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_RULE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_SHORT_FORMS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_IP_RARE_PROTOCOLS is not set
CONFIG_IPADDR=y
CONFIG_IPLINK=y
CONFIG_IPROUTE=y
CONFIG_IPTUNNEL=y
CONFIG_IPRULE=y
CONFIG_IPCALC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IPCALC_FANCY=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IPCALC_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_NETSTAT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NETSTAT_WIDE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NETSTAT_PRG=y
CONFIG_NSLOOKUP=y
CONFIG_NTPD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NTPD_SERVER=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_NTPD_CONF=y
CONFIG_PSCAN=y
CONFIG_ROUTE=y
CONFIG_SLATTACH=y
CONFIG_TCPSVD=y
CONFIG_TELNET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TELNET_TTYPE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TELNET_AUTOLOGIN=y
CONFIG_TELNETD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TELNETD_STANDALONE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TELNETD_INETD_WAIT=y
CONFIG_TFTP=y
CONFIG_TFTPD=y

#
# Common options for tftp/tftpd
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_TFTP_GET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TFTP_PUT=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TFTP_BLOCKSIZE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TFTP_PROGRESS_BAR=y
# CONFIG_TFTP_DEBUG is not set
CONFIG_TRACEROUTE=y
CONFIG_TRACEROUTE6=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TRACEROUTE_VERBOSE=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_TRACEROUTE_SOURCE_ROUTE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_TRACEROUTE_USE_ICMP is not set
CONFIG_TUNCTL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TUNCTL_UG=y
# CONFIG_UDHCPC6 is not set
CONFIG_UDHCPD=y
CONFIG_DHCPRELAY=y
CONFIG_DUMPLEASES=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCPD_WRITE_LEASES_EARLY=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCPD_BASE_IP_ON_MAC is not set
CONFIG_DHCPD_LEASES_FILE="/var/lib/misc/udhcpd.leases"
CONFIG_UDHCPC=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCPC_ARPING=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCPC_SANITIZEOPT=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCP_PORT is not set
CONFIG_UDHCP_DEBUG=9
CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCP_RFC3397=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UDHCP_8021Q=y
CONFIG_UDHCPC_DEFAULT_SCRIPT="/usr/share/udhcpc/default.script"
CONFIG_UDHCPC_SLACK_FOR_BUGGY_SERVERS=80
CONFIG_IFUPDOWN_UDHCPC_CMD_OPTIONS="-R -n"
CONFIG_UDPSVD=y
CONFIG_VCONFIG=y
CONFIG_WGET=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WGET_STATUSBAR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WGET_AUTHENTICATION=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WGET_LONG_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_WGET_TIMEOUT=y
CONFIG_ZCIP=y

#
# Print Utilities
#
CONFIG_LPD=y
CONFIG_LPR=y
CONFIG_LPQ=y

#
# Mail Utilities
#
CONFIG_MAKEMIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_MIME_CHARSET="us-ascii"
CONFIG_POPMAILDIR=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_POPMAILDIR_DELIVERY=y
CONFIG_REFORMIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_REFORMIME_COMPAT=y
CONFIG_SENDMAIL=y

#
# Process Utilities
#
CONFIG_IOSTAT=y
CONFIG_LSOF=y
CONFIG_MPSTAT=y
CONFIG_NMETER=y
CONFIG_PMAP=y
CONFIG_POWERTOP=y
CONFIG_PSTREE=y
CONFIG_PWDX=y
CONFIG_SMEMCAP=y
CONFIG_TOP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOP_CPU_USAGE_PERCENTAGE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOP_CPU_GLOBAL_PERCENTS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOP_SMP_CPU=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOP_DECIMALS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOP_SMP_PROCESS=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_TOPMEM=y
CONFIG_UPTIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_UPTIME_UTMP_SUPPORT=y
CONFIG_FREE=y
CONFIG_FUSER=y
CONFIG_KILL=y
CONFIG_KILLALL=y
CONFIG_KILLALL5=y
CONFIG_PGREP=y
CONFIG_PIDOF=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_PIDOF_SINGLE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_PIDOF_OMIT=y
CONFIG_PKILL=y
CONFIG_PS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_PS_WIDE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_PS_LONG is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_PS_TIME=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_PS_ADDITIONAL_COLUMNS=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_PS_UNUSUAL_SYSTEMS is not set
CONFIG_RENICE=y
CONFIG_BB_SYSCTL=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SHOW_THREADS=y
CONFIG_WATCH=y

#
# Runit Utilities
#
CONFIG_RUNSV=y
CONFIG_RUNSVDIR=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_RUNSVDIR_LOG is not set
CONFIG_SV=y
CONFIG_SV_DEFAULT_SERVICE_DIR="/var/service"
CONFIG_SVLOGD=y
CONFIG_CHPST=y
CONFIG_SETUIDGID=y
CONFIG_ENVUIDGID=y
CONFIG_ENVDIR=y
CONFIG_SOFTLIMIT=y
# CONFIG_CHCON is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_CHCON_LONG_OPTIONS is not set
# CONFIG_GETENFORCE is not set
# CONFIG_GETSEBOOL is not set
# CONFIG_LOAD_POLICY is not set
# CONFIG_MATCHPATHCON is not set
# CONFIG_RESTORECON is not set
# CONFIG_RUNCON is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_RUNCON_LONG_OPTIONS is not set
# CONFIG_SELINUXENABLED is not set
# CONFIG_SETENFORCE is not set
# CONFIG_SETFILES is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SETFILES_CHECK_OPTION is not set
# CONFIG_SETSEBOOL is not set
# CONFIG_SESTATUS is not set

#
# Shells
#
CONFIG_ASH=y
CONFIG_ASH_BASH_COMPAT=y
# CONFIG_ASH_IDLE_TIMEOUT is not set
CONFIG_ASH_JOB_CONTROL=y
CONFIG_ASH_ALIAS=y
CONFIG_ASH_GETOPTS=y
CONFIG_ASH_BUILTIN_ECHO=y
CONFIG_ASH_BUILTIN_PRINTF=y
CONFIG_ASH_BUILTIN_TEST=y
CONFIG_ASH_CMDCMD=y
# CONFIG_ASH_MAIL is not set
CONFIG_ASH_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE=y
CONFIG_ASH_RANDOM_SUPPORT=y
CONFIG_ASH_EXPAND_PRMT=y
CONFIG_CTTYHACK=y
CONFIG_HUSH=y
CONFIG_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT=y
CONFIG_HUSH_BRACE_EXPANSION=y
CONFIG_HUSH_HELP=y
CONFIG_HUSH_INTERACTIVE=y
CONFIG_HUSH_SAVEHISTORY=y
CONFIG_HUSH_JOB=y
CONFIG_HUSH_TICK=y
CONFIG_HUSH_IF=y
CONFIG_HUSH_LOOPS=y
CONFIG_HUSH_CASE=y
CONFIG_HUSH_FUNCTIONS=y
CONFIG_HUSH_LOCAL=y
CONFIG_HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT=y
CONFIG_HUSH_EXPORT_N=y
CONFIG_HUSH_MODE_X=y
# CONFIG_MSH is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_IS_ASH=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_IS_HUSH is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_IS_NONE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_BASH_IS_ASH is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_BASH_IS_HUSH is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_BASH_IS_NONE=y
CONFIG_SH_MATH_SUPPORT=y
CONFIG_SH_MATH_SUPPORT_64=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_EXTRA_QUIET=y
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE is not set
# CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_NOFORK is not set
CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_HISTFILESIZE=y

#
# System Logging Utilities
#
CONFIG_SYSLOGD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_ROTATE_LOGFILE=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_REMOTE_LOG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SYSLOGD_DUP=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SYSLOGD_CFG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_SYSLOGD_READ_BUFFER_SIZE=256
CONFIG_FEATURE_IPC_SYSLOG=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_IPC_SYSLOG_BUFFER_SIZE=16
CONFIG_LOGREAD=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_LOGREAD_REDUCED_LOCKING=y
CONFIG_FEATURE_KMSG_SYSLOG=y
CONFIG_KLOGD=y

#
# klogd should not be used together with syslog to kernel printk buffer
#
CONFIG_FEATURE_KLOGD_KLOGCTL=y
CONFIG_LOGGER=y

******* End of NEW INSTRUCTIONS (updated 06 Aug 2014 ) *******

This post is about how to cross compile a version of busybox for arm devices. If you’re just looking to get a generic version of busybox, go to the bottom of the post where you can download them.

First get the busybox source. I tried with the latest one busybox-1.20.2 and 1.20.1.

I compiled 1.20.2 with GCC Linaro toolchain: gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-4.7-2012.10-20121022_linux

export PATH=$PATH:~/toolchains/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-4.7-2012.10-20121022_linux/bin
export CROSS_COMPILE="arm-linux-gnueabihf-"

 

make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE="$CROSS_COMPILE" menuconfig

 

Busybox settings:
-General config>[*] Dont use /usr
-Build options>[*]Build Busybox as a static library (no dynamic libs)
-Build options>Cross compiler prefix: arm-linux-gnueabihf- (Optional. Alternately one can set the CROSS_COMPILE prefix at build time like I've demonstrated. It's also been told that it works with arm-none-linux-gnueabi-)

Linux Module utilities: Clear both the following:
()Default directory containing modules
()Default name of modules.dep

Networking Utilities:
-[ ] Support RPC services (Clear this!)[/code]
 
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE="$CROSS_COMPILE"[/code]
Busybox binaries will be compiled in the current directory.

If you dont remove "Support for RPC" build fails with the following error:
  CC      networking/inetd.o
  AR      networking/lib.a
  LINK    busybox_unstripped
Trying libraries: crypt m
Failed: -Wl,--start-group -lcrypt -lm -Wl,--end-group
Output of:
arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -Wall -Wshadow -Wwrite-strings -Wundef -Wstrict-prototypes -Wunused -Wunused-parameter -Wunused-function -Wunused-value -Wmissing-prototypes -Wmissing-declarations -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wold-style-definition -fno-builtin-strlen -finline-limit=0 -fomit-frame-pointer -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections -fno-guess-branch-probability -funsigned-char -static-libgcc -falign-functions=1 -falign-jumps=1 -falign-labels=1 -falign-loops=1 -Os -static -o busybox_unstripped -Wl,--sort-common -Wl,--sort-section,alignment -Wl,--start-group applets/built-in.o archival/lib.a archival/libarchive/lib.a console-tools/lib.a coreutils/lib.a coreutils/libcoreutils/lib.a debianutils/lib.a e2fsprogs/lib.a editors/lib.a findutils/lib.a init/lib.a libbb/lib.a libpwdgrp/lib.a loginutils/lib.a mailutils/lib.a miscutils/lib.a modutils/lib.a networking/lib.a networking/libiproute/lib.a networking/udhcp/lib.a printutils/lib.a procps/lib.a runit/lib.a selinux/lib.a shell/lib.a sysklogd/lib.a util-linux/lib.a util-linux/volume_id/lib.a archival/built-in.o archival/libarchive/built-in.o console-tools/built-in.o coreutils/built-in.o coreutils/libcoreutils/built-in.o debianutils/built-in.o e2fsprogs/built-in.o editors/built-in.o findutils/built-in.o init/built-in.o libbb/built-in.o libpwdgrp/built-in.o loginutils/built-in.o mailutils/built-in.o miscutils/built-in.o modutils/built-in.o networking/built-in.o networking/libiproute/built-in.o networking/udhcp/built-in.o printutils/built-in.o procps/built-in.o runit/built-in.o selinux/built-in.o shell/built-in.o sysklogd/built-in.o util-linux/built-in.o util-linux/volume_id/built-in.o -Wl,--end-group -Wl,--start-group -lcrypt -lm -Wl,--end-group
==========
debianutils/lib.a(mktemp.o): In function `mktemp_main':
mktemp.c:(.text.mktemp_main+0x70): warning: the use of `tempnam' is dangerous, better use `mkstemp'
networking/lib.a(nslookup.o): In function `print_host':
nslookup.c:(.text.print_host+0x24): warning: Using 'getaddrinfo' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
networking/lib.a(ipcalc.o): In function `ipcalc_main':
ipcalc.c:(.text.ipcalc_main+0x15e): warning: Using 'gethostbyaddr' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
libbb/lib.a(inet_common.o): In function `INET_resolve':
inet_common.c:(.text.INET_resolve+0x32): warning: Using 'gethostbyname' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `reread_config_file':
inetd.c:(.text.reread_config_file+0x4e4): warning: Using 'getservbyname' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
networking/lib.a(netstat.o): In function `ip_port_str':
netstat.c:(.text.ip_port_str+0x28): warning: Using 'getservbyport' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `reread_config_file':
inetd.c:(.text.reread_config_file+0x48e): warning: Using 'getrpcbyname' in statically linked applications requires at runtime the shared libraries from the glibc version used for linking
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `unregister_rpc':
inetd.c:(.text.unregister_rpc+0xc): undefined reference to `pmap_unset'
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `register_rpc':
inetd.c:(.text.register_rpc+0x28): undefined reference to `pmap_unset'
inetd.c:(.text.register_rpc+0x3e): undefined reference to `pmap_set'
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `prepare_socket_fd':
inetd.c:(.text.prepare_socket_fd+0x52): undefined reference to `bindresvport'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
make: *** [busybox_unstripped] Error 1

I had to disable RPC services to get past this error.
Menuconfig>Networking Utilities>Support RPC services.
It seems the error is in the library "crypt".

I am attaching a copy of .config file for 1.20.2:

[Download not found]

Installing Busybox on your Android device

Note that Busybox provides basic function like cp. Without busybox (at least in sbin), all these will fail. So for a fresh non rooted phone, it first needs to be rooted (pushing and providing permissions for su binary and a Superuser apk). After rooting, one needs to install busybox in a convenient location in path like /system/xbin (usual location)

You cant even push to /system/xbin with adb because you dont have permissions for that. So it needs to be either done in recovery, or using a app like Root explorer.

adb push busybox /sdcard/

 

Run Root explorer, copy busybox from /sdcard to /system/xbin.

Or in recovery:

mount /system
adb push busybox /system/xbin

Now:

adb shell
mount -o rw,remount /dev/block/mtdblock3 /system
chmod 755 /system/xbin/busybox
/system/xbin/busybox --install /system/xbin

 Download links:

[Download not found]

 

[Download not found]

 

Feedback and Remarks:

 

Zeppelinrox said:

Hey thanks for the write up!

It came in VERY handy - I probably would have given up if not for your tip about RPC and I would have settled for a more bloated binary that I compiled using CodeBench.

However, it still would not compile - for another RPC related reason.
In the .config file, the setting you say to disable results in:
# CONFIG_FEATURE_INETD_RPC is not set

But there is another RPC setting:
CONFIG_FEATURE_HAVE_RPC
This one gets set automatically and can't be changed in the menu.

This setting has to remain disabled: Linux System Utilities > Support mounting NFS file systems on Linux < 2.6.23
If it's enabled, the build will fail because CONFIG_FEATURE_HAVE_RPC gets automatically activated :p

Other settings to make note of:
Login/Password Management Utilities > Use internal crypt functions
Login/Password Management Utilities > Enable SHA256/512 crypt functions
Make sure those 2 are enabled.
Disabling them also cause build failures for me.

Bottom line: I've successfully compiled BusyBox v1.21.0 with gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-4.7-2012.11-20121123_win32.exe
Yep! I used Cygwin on Windows XP!

With identical .configs (apart from compiler prefix)
Linaro Static build is 1406 KB
CodeBench Static build 2037 KB


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.

Create flashable files for Odin

Odin uses a .tar.md5 format which is actually a concatenated tar and .md5 file.

To convert boot.img to Odin flashable:

tar -H ustar -cvvf boot.tar boot.img

The -H option may be substituted with –format

This creates a file boot.tar in ustar format.

Now we append the md5 to the same file

md5sum boot.tar >> boot.tar

We now rename the file to .tar.md5

mv boot.tar boot.tar.md5

To extract and convert this back to a Recovery flashable format, we do

tar -xvvf boot.tar.md5

If you need to read the md5, you can use the following command:

tail -1 boot.tar.md5 | cut -d\  -f1

which reads the last byte of the file boot.tar.md5 which is the md5sum integer plus the filename seperated by a space, then “cuts” it by the delimitor of space, and shows the first characters before the delimitor.


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.

Building a toolchain for Android (Compiling an Android kernel) – crosstool-ng

Summary:

sudo apt-get install gawk bison flex texinfo automake libtool cvs curl aria2 patch lzma libncurses5-dev g++ openjdk-7-jre-headless build-essential libcloog-ppl-dev gettext help2man
cd ~/
git clone https://github.com/crosstool-ng/crosstool-ng.git
cd crosstool-ng/
./bootstrap
mkdir ../crosstoolactual
./configure --prefix=$HOME/crosstoolactual
make
make install
export PATH="${PATH}:$HOME/crosstoolactual/bin"
mkdir ~/work-dir
cd ~/work-dir
ct-ng help
ct-ng menuconfig
ct-ng build

Listing my .config here:

#
# Automatically generated file; DO NOT EDIT.
# Crosstool-NG Configuration
#
CT_CONFIGURE_has_static_link=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_wget=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_curl=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_stat_flavor_GNU=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_make_3_81_or_newer=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_libtoolize_2_4_or_newer=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_autoconf_2_63_or_newer=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_autoreconf_2_63_or_newer=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_gnu_m4_1_4_12_or_newer=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_cvs=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_svn=y
CT_CONFIGURE_has_git=y
CT_MODULES=y

#
# Paths and misc options
#

#
# crosstool-NG behavior
#
# CT_OBSOLETE is not set
CT_EXPERIMENTAL=y
# CT_ALLOW_BUILD_AS_ROOT is not set
# CT_DEBUG_CT is not set

#
# Paths
#
CT_LOCAL_TARBALLS_DIR="${HOME}/src"
CT_SAVE_TARBALLS=y
CT_WORK_DIR="${CT_TOP_DIR}/.build"
CT_BUILD_TOP_DIR="${CT_WORK_DIR}/${CT_HOST:+HOST-${CT_HOST}/}${CT_TARGET}"
CT_PREFIX_DIR="${CT_PREFIX:-${HOME}/x-tools}/${CT_HOST:+HOST-${CT_HOST}/}${CT_TARGET}"
CT_RM_RF_PREFIX_DIR=y
CT_REMOVE_DOCS=y
CT_PREFIX_DIR_RO=y
CT_STRIP_HOST_TOOLCHAIN_EXECUTABLES=y
# CT_STRIP_TARGET_TOOLCHAIN_EXECUTABLES is not set

#
# Downloading
#
CT_DOWNLOAD_AGENT_WGET=y
# CT_DOWNLOAD_AGENT_CURL is not set
# CT_DOWNLOAD_AGENT_NONE is not set
# CT_FORBID_DOWNLOAD is not set
# CT_FORCE_DOWNLOAD is not set
CT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10
CT_DOWNLOAD_WGET_OPTIONS="--passive-ftp --tries=3 -nc --progress=dot:binary"
# CT_ONLY_DOWNLOAD is not set
# CT_USE_MIRROR is not set

#
# Extracting
#
# CT_FORCE_EXTRACT is not set
CT_OVERRIDE_CONFIG_GUESS_SUB=y
# CT_ONLY_EXTRACT is not set
CT_PATCH_BUNDLED=y
# CT_PATCH_LOCAL is not set
# CT_PATCH_BUNDLED_LOCAL is not set
# CT_PATCH_LOCAL_BUNDLED is not set
# CT_PATCH_BUNDLED_FALLBACK_LOCAL is not set
# CT_PATCH_LOCAL_FALLBACK_BUNDLED is not set
# CT_PATCH_NONE is not set
CT_PATCH_ORDER="bundled"

#
# Build behavior
#
CT_PARALLEL_JOBS=0
CT_LOAD=""
CT_USE_PIPES=y
CT_EXTRA_CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD=""
CT_EXTRA_LDFLAGS_FOR_BUILD=""
CT_EXTRA_CFLAGS_FOR_HOST=""
CT_EXTRA_LDFLAGS_FOR_HOST=""
# CT_CONFIG_SHELL_SH is not set
# CT_CONFIG_SHELL_ASH is not set
CT_CONFIG_SHELL_BASH=y
# CT_CONFIG_SHELL_CUSTOM is not set
CT_CONFIG_SHELL="${bash}"

#
# Logging
#
# CT_LOG_ERROR is not set
# CT_LOG_WARN is not set
# CT_LOG_INFO is not set
CT_LOG_EXTRA=y
# CT_LOG_ALL is not set
# CT_LOG_DEBUG is not set
CT_LOG_LEVEL_MAX="EXTRA"
# CT_LOG_SEE_TOOLS_WARN is not set
CT_LOG_PROGRESS_BAR=y
CT_LOG_TO_FILE=y
CT_LOG_FILE_COMPRESS=y

#
# Target options
#
CT_ARCH="arm"
# CT_ARCH_alpha is not set
CT_ARCH_arm=y
# CT_ARCH_avr is not set
# CT_ARCH_m68k is not set
# CT_ARCH_microblaze is not set
# CT_ARCH_mips is not set
# CT_ARCH_nios2 is not set
# CT_ARCH_powerpc is not set
# CT_ARCH_s390 is not set
# CT_ARCH_sh is not set
# CT_ARCH_sparc is not set
# CT_ARCH_x86 is not set
# CT_ARCH_xtensa is not set
CT_ARCH_alpha_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_arm_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_avr_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_m68k_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_microblaze_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_mips_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_nios2_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_powerpc_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_s390_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_sh_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_sparc_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_x86_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_xtensa_AVAILABLE=y
CT_ARCH_SUFFIX=""

#
# Generic target options
#
# CT_MULTILIB is not set
CT_DEMULTILIB=y
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_BOTH_MMU=y
CT_ARCH_DEFAULT_HAS_MMU=y
CT_ARCH_USE_MMU=y
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_BOTH_ENDIAN=y
CT_ARCH_DEFAULT_LE=y
# CT_ARCH_BE is not set
CT_ARCH_LE=y
CT_ARCH_ENDIAN="little"
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_32=y
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_64=y
CT_ARCH_DEFAULT_32=y
CT_ARCH_BITNESS=64
# CT_ARCH_32 is not set
CT_ARCH_64=y

#
# Target optimisations
#
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_WITH_ARCH=y
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_WITH_CPU=y
CT_ARCH_SUPPORTS_WITH_TUNE=y
CT_ARCH_EXCLUSIVE_WITH_CPU=y
CT_ARCH_ARCH=""
CT_ARCH_CPU=""
CT_ARCH_TUNE=""
CT_TARGET_CFLAGS=""
CT_TARGET_LDFLAGS=""
CT_ARCH_FLOAT=""

#
# arm other options
#
CT_ARCH_ARM_MODE="arm"
CT_ARCH_ARM_MODE_ARM=y
# CT_ARCH_ARM_MODE_THUMB is not set
# CT_ARCH_ARM_INTERWORKING is not set
CT_ARCH_ARM_EABI_FORCE=y
CT_ARCH_ARM_EABI=y

#
# Toolchain options
#

#
# General toolchain options
#
CT_FORCE_SYSROOT=y
CT_USE_SYSROOT=y
CT_SYSROOT_NAME="sysroot"
CT_SYSROOT_DIR_PREFIX=""
CT_WANTS_STATIC_LINK=y
CT_WANTS_STATIC_LINK_CXX=y
# CT_STATIC_TOOLCHAIN is not set
CT_TOOLCHAIN_PKGVERSION=""
CT_TOOLCHAIN_BUGURL=""

#
# Tuple completion and aliasing
#
CT_TARGET_VENDOR=""
CT_TARGET_ALIAS_SED_EXPR=""
CT_TARGET_ALIAS="arm-one"

#
# Toolchain type
#
# CT_NATIVE is not set
CT_CROSS=y
# CT_CROSS_NATIVE is not set
# CT_CANADIAN is not set
CT_TOOLCHAIN_TYPE="cross"

#
# Build system
#
CT_BUILD=""
CT_BUILD_PREFIX=""
CT_BUILD_SUFFIX=""

#
# Misc options
#
# CT_TOOLCHAIN_ENABLE_NLS is not set

#
# Operating System
#
CT_KERNEL_SUPPORTS_SHARED_LIBS=y
CT_KERNEL="linux"
CT_KERNEL_VERSION="4.10.8"
# CT_KERNEL_bare_metal is not set
CT_KERNEL_linux=y
CT_KERNEL_bare_metal_AVAILABLE=y
CT_KERNEL_linux_AVAILABLE=y
# CT_KERNEL_LINUX_CUSTOM is not set
CT_KERNEL_V_4_10=y
# CT_KERNEL_V_4_9 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_4_4 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_4_1 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_3_16 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_3_12 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_3_10 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_3_4 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_V_3_2 is not set
CT_KERNEL_windows_AVAILABLE=y

#
# Common kernel options
#
CT_SHARED_LIBS=y

#
# linux other options
#
CT_KERNEL_LINUX_VERBOSITY_0=y
# CT_KERNEL_LINUX_VERBOSITY_1 is not set
# CT_KERNEL_LINUX_VERBOSITY_2 is not set
CT_KERNEL_LINUX_VERBOSE_LEVEL=0
# CT_KERNEL_LINUX_INSTALL_CHECK is not set

#
# Binary utilities
#
CT_ARCH_BINFMT_ELF=y
CT_BINUTILS="binutils"
CT_BINUTILS_binutils=y

#
# GNU binutils
#
# CT_BINUTILS_CUSTOM is not set
CT_BINUTILS_VERSION="2.28"
# CT_BINUTILS_SHOW_LINARO is not set
CT_BINUTILS_V_2_28=y
# CT_BINUTILS_V_2_27 is not set
# CT_BINUTILS_V_2_26 is not set
CT_BINUTILS_2_27_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_2_26_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_2_25_1_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_2_25_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_2_24_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_2_23_2_or_later=y
CT_BINUTILS_HAS_HASH_STYLE=y
CT_BINUTILS_HAS_GOLD=y
CT_BINUTILS_GOLD_SUPPORTS_ARCH=y
CT_BINUTILS_GOLD_SUPPORT=y
CT_BINUTILS_HAS_PLUGINS=y
CT_BINUTILS_HAS_PKGVERSION_BUGURL=y
CT_BINUTILS_FORCE_LD_BFD_DEFAULT=y
CT_BINUTILS_LINKER_LD=y
# CT_BINUTILS_LINKER_LD_GOLD is not set
# CT_BINUTILS_LINKER_GOLD_LD is not set
CT_BINUTILS_LINKERS_LIST="ld"
CT_BINUTILS_LINKER_DEFAULT="bfd"
# CT_BINUTILS_PLUGINS is not set
CT_BINUTILS_EXTRA_CONFIG_ARRAY=""
# CT_BINUTILS_FOR_TARGET is not set

#
# binutils other options
#

#
# C-library
#
CT_LIBC="glibc"
CT_LIBC_VERSION="2.25"
CT_LIBC_glibc=y
# CT_LIBC_musl is not set
# CT_LIBC_uClibc is not set
CT_LIBC_avr_libc_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_glibc_AVAILABLE=y
CT_THREADS="nptl"
# CT_LIBC_GLIBC_CUSTOM is not set
# CT_CC_GLIBC_SHOW_LINARO is not set
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_V_2_25=y
# CT_LIBC_GLIBC_V_2_24 is not set
# CT_LIBC_GLIBC_V_2_23 is not set
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_2_23_or_later=y
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_2_20_or_later=y
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_2_17_or_later=y
CT_LIBC_mingw_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_musl_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_newlib_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_none_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_uClibc_AVAILABLE=y
CT_LIBC_SUPPORT_THREADS_ANY=y
CT_LIBC_SUPPORT_THREADS_NATIVE=y

#
# Common C library options
#
CT_THREADS_NATIVE=y
# CT_CREATE_LDSO_CONF is not set
CT_LIBC_XLDD=y

#
# glibc other options
#
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_NEEDS_PORTS=y
CT_LIBC_glibc_family=y
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_EXTRA_CONFIG_ARRAY=""
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_CONFIGPARMS=""
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_EXTRA_CFLAGS=""
# CT_LIBC_ENABLE_FORTIFIED_BUILD is not set
# CT_LIBC_DISABLE_VERSIONING is not set
CT_LIBC_OLDEST_ABI=""
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_FORCE_UNWIND=y
CT_LIBC_ADDONS_LIST=""
# CT_LIBC_LOCALES is not set
# CT_LIBC_GLIBC_KERNEL_VERSION_NONE is not set
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_KERNEL_VERSION_AS_HEADERS=y
# CT_LIBC_GLIBC_KERNEL_VERSION_CHOSEN is not set
CT_LIBC_GLIBC_MIN_KERNEL="4.10.8"

#
# C compiler
#
CT_CC="gcc"
CT_CC_CORE_PASSES_NEEDED=y
CT_CC_CORE_PASS_1_NEEDED=y
CT_CC_CORE_PASS_2_NEEDED=y
CT_CC_gcc=y
# CT_CC_GCC_CUSTOM is not set
CT_CC_GCC_VERSION="6.3.0"
# CT_CC_GCC_SHOW_LINARO is not set
CT_CC_GCC_V_6_3_0=y
# CT_CC_GCC_V_5_4_0 is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_V_4_9_4 is not set
CT_CC_GCC_4_8_or_later=y
CT_CC_GCC_4_9_or_later=y
CT_CC_GCC_5_or_later=y
CT_CC_GCC_6=y
CT_CC_GCC_6_or_later=y
CT_CC_GCC_HAS_LIBMPX=y
CT_CC_GCC_ENABLE_CXX_FLAGS=""
CT_CC_GCC_CORE_EXTRA_CONFIG_ARRAY=""
CT_CC_GCC_EXTRA_CONFIG_ARRAY=""
CT_CC_GCC_STATIC_LIBSTDCXX=y
# CT_CC_GCC_SYSTEM_ZLIB is not set
CT_CC_GCC_CONFIG_TLS=m

#
# Optimisation features
#
CT_CC_GCC_USE_GRAPHITE=y
CT_CC_GCC_USE_LTO=y

#
# Settings for libraries running on target
#
CT_CC_GCC_ENABLE_TARGET_OPTSPACE=y
# CT_CC_GCC_LIBMUDFLAP is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LIBGOMP is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LIBSSP is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LIBQUADMATH is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LIBSANITIZER is not set

#
# Misc. obscure options.
#
CT_CC_CXA_ATEXIT=y
# CT_CC_GCC_DISABLE_PCH is not set
CT_CC_GCC_SJLJ_EXCEPTIONS=m
CT_CC_GCC_LDBL_128=m
# CT_CC_GCC_BUILD_ID is not set
CT_CC_GCC_LNK_HASH_STYLE_DEFAULT=y
# CT_CC_GCC_LNK_HASH_STYLE_SYSV is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LNK_HASH_STYLE_GNU is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_LNK_HASH_STYLE_BOTH is not set
CT_CC_GCC_LNK_HASH_STYLE=""
CT_CC_GCC_DEC_FLOAT_AUTO=y
# CT_CC_GCC_DEC_FLOAT_BID is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_DEC_FLOAT_DPD is not set
# CT_CC_GCC_DEC_FLOATS_NO is not set
CT_CC_SUPPORT_CXX=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_FORTRAN=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_JAVA=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_ADA=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_OBJC=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_OBJCXX=y
CT_CC_SUPPORT_GOLANG=y

#
# Additional supported languages:
#
CT_CC_LANG_CXX=y
# CT_CC_LANG_FORTRAN is not set
# CT_CC_LANG_JAVA is not set
# CT_CC_LANG_ADA is not set
# CT_CC_LANG_OBJC is not set
# CT_CC_LANG_OBJCXX is not set
# CT_CC_LANG_GOLANG is not set
CT_CC_LANG_OTHERS=""

#
# Debug facilities
#
# CT_DEBUG_duma is not set
# CT_DEBUG_gdb is not set
# CT_DEBUG_ltrace is not set
# CT_DEBUG_strace is not set

#
# Companion libraries
#
CT_COMPLIBS_NEEDED=y
CT_LIBICONV_NEEDED=y
CT_GETTEXT_NEEDED=y
CT_GMP_NEEDED=y
CT_MPFR_NEEDED=y
CT_ISL_NEEDED=y
CT_MPC_NEEDED=y
CT_NCURSES_NEEDED=y
CT_COMPLIBS=y
CT_LIBICONV=y
CT_GETTEXT=y
CT_GMP=y
CT_MPFR=y
CT_ISL=y
CT_MPC=y
CT_NCURSES=y
# CT_ZLIB is not set
CT_LIBICONV_V_1_15=y
# CT_LIBICONV_V_1_14 is not set
CT_LIBICONV_VERSION="1.15"
CT_GETTEXT_V_0_19_8_1=y
CT_GETTEXT_VERSION="0.19.8.1"
CT_GMP_V_6_1_2=y
CT_GMP_5_0_2_or_later=y
CT_GMP_VERSION="6.1.2"
CT_MPFR_V_3_1_5=y
CT_MPFR_VERSION="3.1.5"
CT_ISL_V_0_18=y
# CT_ISL_V_0_17_1 is not set
# CT_ISL_V_0_16_1 is not set
# CT_ISL_V_0_15 is not set
CT_ISL_V_0_16_or_later=y
CT_ISL_V_0_15_or_later=y
CT_ISL_V_0_14_or_later=y
CT_ISL_V_0_12_or_later=y
CT_ISL_VERSION="0.18"
CT_MPC_V_1_0_3=y
CT_MPC_VERSION="1.0.3"
CT_NCURSES_V_6_0=y
CT_NCURSES_VERSION="6.0"
# CT_NCURSES_NEW_ABI is not set
CT_NCURSES_HOST_CONFIG_ARGS=""
CT_NCURSES_HOST_DISABLE_DB=y
CT_NCURSES_HOST_FALLBACKS="linux,xterm,xterm-color,xterm-256color,vt100"
CT_NCURSES_TARGET_CONFIG_ARGS=""
# CT_NCURSES_TARGET_DISABLE_DB is not set
CT_NCURSES_TARGET_FALLBACKS=""

#
# Companion libraries common options
#
# CT_COMPLIBS_CHECK is not set

#
# Companion tools
#
# CT_COMP_TOOLS_FOR_HOST is not set
# CT_COMP_TOOLS_autoconf is not set
CT_COMP_TOOLS_automake=y
CT_AUTOMAKE_V_1_15=y
CT_AUTOMAKE_VERSION="1.15"
CT_COMP_TOOLS_libtool=y
CT_LIBTOOL_V_2_4_6=y
CT_LIBTOOL_VERSION="2.4.6"
# CT_COMP_TOOLS_m4 is not set
# CT_COMP_TOOLS_make is not set

#
# Test suite
#
# CT_TEST_SUITE_GCC is not set

For compiling anything on Android, you need a good toolchain to cross compile files. To just compile a kernel, you may try using the precompiled toolchain that comes with Android NDK (easy way out). However that one is not optimized for your machine. Neither does it have many prerequisites required if you want to compile other Linux binaries like dosfstools, Over the course of your Android development life, you’ll find yourself missing many linux utilities on Android and will not even find precompiled versions online. So you need to be able to build Linux utilites which can work on your phone too (cross compiling).

Thanks to Ahmet Ipkin (TheGanymedes on XDA), you now have a good guide to making a toolchain for Android. My post is based entirely on his original post, and I urge you to read his opening post completely to understand the details. If it helped you, please consider a paypal donation to him. I will be quoting his post on the actual guide to compile a toolchain, after I add some notes that I felt needed to be inserted to help newbies. 🙂

Prerequisites:

sudo apt-get install gawk bison flex texinfo automake libtool cvs curl aria2 patch lzma libncurses5-dev g++ openjdk-7-jre-headless build-essential libcloog-ppl-dev gettext

To debug issues, it is good to watch the build.log

 

tail -f /home/droidzone/x-tools/arm-msm-linux-gnueabi/build.log

 

Some Notes:

List of Toolchain Options: (Also includes Compatibility Table for different tool versions)

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?hl=en_US&hl=en_US&key=0Amlyrhh3vKt7dF9COXVCdTc4VzJ1eGtWSWZueFB4MWc&output=html

Sources for tarballs:

I found that ct-ng allowed you to select only very old versions of included requirements like gcc. So I downloaded them from:

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/  for gcc

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gmp/

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gmp/

http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mpfr/

Libelf from http://www.mr511.de/software/

 

Note that once you add them, you have to go to the actual source dir of ct-ng from where you execute ./configure, and execute the following cmd lines:

Adding Latest Versions of Included software

./scripts/addToolVersion.sh --binutils -s -c 2.20.1a
./scripts/addToolVersion.sh --gcc -s -c 4.6.1
./scripts/addToolVersion.sh --glibc -s -c 2.1.3

Note that after you do this, you have to run

./configure --prefix="path to dir where you will be building ct-ng"
make install
cd [to dir where you will make ct-ng"
./ct-ng menuconfig
./ct-ng build

Then, moving to the tarballs dir, wget the latest packages…

wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/glibc-2.1.3.tar.gz
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/gcc-4.6.1/gcc-4.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/binutils-2.20.1a.tar.bz2
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/glibc-2.1.3.tar.gz
wget http://www.mr511.de/software/libelf-0.8.13.tar.gz

Errors I got while building:

Tip: The first time you build, it is good to check the following options:

Menuconfig>Paths and Misc options:

[x]Debug crosstool-ng
[x]Save intermediary steps

This will allow you to continue without redoing the steps which succeeded!

 

  • Error: Installing C library headers, Linux version is unavailable in installed headers files
Installing C library headers
[ERROR] Linux version is unavailable in installed headers files
[ERROR] Build failed in step 'Installing C library headers'
[ERROR] Error happened in '/home/droidzone/ct-ng/lib/ct-ng-1.9.3/scripts/build/libc/glibc.sh' in function 'do_libc_headers' (line unknown, sorry)
[ERROR] called from '/home/droidzone/ct-ng/lib/ct-ng-1.9.3/scripts/crosstool-NG.sh' at line # 597 in function 'main'

According to TheGanymedes, the solution is:

It shows that it couldn’t validate version of the linux kernel. Just open a terminal, go to the kernel directory and write “make ARCH=arm menuconfig”. After writing this, look through all options – you shall find one that allows you to pick your board model, cpu model etc. Pick board model as Qualcomm/msm and as cpu model pick qsd8x50. Sorry that I don’t know the exact names of the options.

After this, quit from that menu with esc-esc keys, and save config. The other options are unnecessary, just board and cpu type is all we need.

Now, write make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux- . It’s going to fail, but will create the necessary version files and this was all we need. Now you can use crosstool-ng.

This is the location to find those options:

System type&gt;ARM System type&gt; Qualcomm MSM/QSD
Qualcomm MSM Soc tyoe: QSD8x50
  • Error: Errors with PPL/CLOOG. This was a tough one, since TheGanymedes forgot to mention that this would happen. ;). This is apparently (according to him) because ct-ng for some reason cannot build PPL/CLOOG. For this, you have to disable Graphite loop optimizations. Only then will ct-ng build
C compiler> Untick “Enable Graphite loop optimizations”
  • Error: Other errors with specific components. This may occur if your net connection is crappy and downloads files. In these cases, though the error message may be rather obscure, you can usually find out what step it failed at, by examining the file ~/x-tools/crosscompilername/.build/build.log. Note that .build is a hidden folder.
  • Error: [ERROR]  Build failed in step ‘Retrieving needed toolchain components’ tarballs’ called in step ‘(top-level)’
    • Now, this is a rather obscure issue which happened both on my local system and on the ssh at sourceforge. The reason was the compiler trying to create a symbolic link that already existed.
    • Solution: Go to ct-ng dir where you execute ./ct-ng build. Within it, do an rm -rf ./build/* ; rmdir ./build
  • Workarounds for getting crosstool itself to build under an ssh environment. The issue was that many dependencies of ct-ng, like autoconf, automake, lzma, texinfo (makeinfo) are not installed on the target system and we have no way of using aptitude. So the solution is to build all these utilities from source. A nice hint to do this to:
    • mkdir -p ~/bin
    • Add a path to your ~/.bashrc, and add the line: PATH=$PATH:~/bin:~/bin/bin
    • Now, configure each dependency while building with: ./configure –prefix=/absolutepath_to_$HOME/bin. Note that instead of building binaries in ~/bin, this builds them in ~/bin/bin. This is a good substitution when you dont have Write rights to /usr/bin (cant do a ‘sudo make install’).
    • Then, make
    • make install. Make install will install to $HOME/bin/bin 🙂

 

The following is a quote of TheGanymedes’s post at XDA. All credits to him.

NOTE
Before you start anything, don’t forget to install build-essentials package. Under ubuntu, the command necessary for it is:sudo apt-get install build-essential – I don’t know about other distros..

 

————————-

Well, as promised, now we should write the steps; right?… Now, before we begin, I should really warn that the process is really head spinning if you’re to do all by yourself; so take heed to the warnings I give you (I learned the hard way) 

Well, first thing is first, we need a Cross Compiler Toolchain, properly built that allows us to build applications, libraries etc. There is one toolchain that’s already given to you with Android Native Development Kit (called NDK) but that one is quite restricted because it’s built with support for Bionic (trimmed C library that is presented in Android), not Glibc or uGlibC. If you want to develop more native-like applications (especially linux programs) you need GlibC or uGlibC. You can try to build these libraries with that toolchain too, but don’t do that, because it’s going to fail as well. The reason is that some sort of Chicken-Egg problem is eminent in GlibC-GCC compilation 

Let’s put the steps to be followed first to build a nice toolchain. I assume you’re using Linux – because the tools are developed for this platform only. If you’re going to use them in Windows, you need Cygwin or such tools but I can’t supply help about that, for since I didn’t use them before at all. Google is your friend about this 

(Note, the packages I wrote at this list are available at GNU’s website www.gnu.org freely, open source)
1- We’re going to build “binutils” first. This package includes some important stuff like assembler, linker, archiver (for libraries) etc..
2- We’re going to build GCC’s prerequisites. These are GMP, MPRF and MPC packages.
3- We’re going to build a “bootstap” gcc (God, I hate that name. I like to call it “naked gcc” more  ). This GCC just converts source codes to pure assemblies: thus cannot generate linkages or such. We’re going to use it to build “actual” tools we’re going to use.
4- We’re going to extract Kernel source/headers – use Desire Kernel’s here. There is some copying, and such to be done tho.
5- We’re going to make GlibC headers installed, which will allow us to build more “complex” gcc, which can link applications with those libraries when the library binaries are given (so such thing is there yet, but we fool it  )
6- We’re going to build a very limited GlibC which will give us support for building more “complex” gcc.
7- We’re going to build GCC again. This is called “Pass 1 GCC” or “GCC Stage 1”. This GCC can link applications to libraries, with the information in Kernel headers and library headers (it’s why we give it the headers, so it can create applications suitable with the Kernel architecture).
8- We’re to build actual GlibC now. This glibC will be used for our compiled applications, statically or dynamically. You can, at the end of this step, copy the files to your devices and they would work, but picking files here is harder, so I’d recommend you to leave this alone for now 
9- We’re going to build “Pass 2 GCC” or “GCC Step 2” This is a full fledged GCC that can do anything we want 

Complex isn’t it? This is precisely why I recommend you to use Crostool-NG. The other tools (like Buildtools or Crosstool) (sadly) don’t create GlibC based toolchains, or use old versions of them, so using this one is recommended. This package automatically will download, setup and link your all toolchain without you worrying about something (believe me, this is what you need. I gave 8 days without this to create a working GCC and Crosstool-NG made another one to me in 50 minutes.  )

Well, however, Crosstool-NG won’t create “nice” applications (they’ll run allright, but they won’t be optimized) without some settings done, so, let’s go there. First, we need to install Crosstool-NG itself. To do that; go to http://crosstool-ng.org/website, download and extract it to some place. Even though the steps are written in Crosstool website, you don’t need all commands there (like setting PATH is unnecessary). The commands you should use is, after CD’ing to the Crosstool dir;

./configure –prefix=”</some/place>”
make
make install
cd “</some/place/bin>”
./ct-ng menuconfig

I used prefix as /home/ahmet/crosstool for instance. Note that this is not going to be where your toolchain is, this is where your “toolchain creator” is .
—- NECESSARY KERNEL HEADER CHANGES —-

OK now, before we start compiling; we need to make some folder moving, copying etc. in Kernel directory. This is needed, because tree structure changed a tad in 2.6 kernels and unless you compiled this kernel before, some directories won’t be in their correct place for our cross compiler. Switch to the directory which you extracted the kernel image. Now, from now on, I’m going to assume you’re an Qualcomm/MSM board (like Desire, Nexus One etc.) user; but if you’re not, change my descriptions accordingly:

1- Go to <kernel dir>/arch/arm/include folder. Copy “asm” directory and paste it into <kernel dir>/include directory.
2- Go to <kernel dir>/arch/arm/mach-msm/include folder. Copy “mach” directory and paste it to <kernel dir>/include/asm directory. It’s going to complain that there is another mach folder there and will ask if you want to merge/overwrite. Say yes to all questions.

Now our kernel headers folder is showing a Desire device. Note that if you’re not a Desire user, you should use your cpu folder instead of ARM and your board manufacturer in mach-xxxxx instead of mach-msm.

Note this kernel directory, we’re going to use it to configure crosstool..

— CONFIGURING CROSSTOOL —

After issuing the commands, the crosstool-ng will give you a configuration menu. Most of the setting here are unchanged, but the ones you should change are given below.

1- Paths and misc options
a) Try features marked as EXPERIMENTAL (this is needed to build a toolchain with the latest GlibC support) -> Enabled
b) Local Tarballs directory -> The folder address that you want downloaded stuff to be kept. You might use them again (like for compiling GlibC again for device, you will use them 
c) Save New Tarballs -> Enabled ( so that new downloaded files aren’t erased  )
d) Working Directory and Prefix directory -> Normally you don’t have to change them, but you can if you want to install your toolchain to some other location. CT_TARGET signifies your target name (like arm-msm-linux-gnueabi – arm is cpu model, msm is vendor (can be anything), linux is showing the binaries are for linux system (you can use android, but then you’ll get not GlibC but Bionic) and gnueabi shows you’re going to use open-source EABI structure for your executables. The other option is ELF but EABI is more flexible (because also supports ELF).
e) Strip all toolchain executables -> do it if you don’t want to debug GCC itself. this makes toolchain smaller of size, and a tad faster.

The other options can stay the way they are, or you can change them accordingly here. You can get help with ? key, and if you don’t understand anything, just leave them default – there are very complex things there that you don’t need to know if you’re not planning to be a expert on subject 

2- Target options
a) Target Architecture -> arm should be selected, cos Desire uses ARM. If you plan to make toolchain for, say, powerpc, pick that.
b) Endianness -> Should be little. ARM processors in Desire uses little endian system.
c) Architecture level -> “armv7-a” this is should be written. Desire uses ARMv7 based instructions and if you leave here empty, the applications will be built with armv5 support – they’re still going to run but not use advanced v7 features.
d) Use Specific FPU -> “neon” . Desire uses NEON structure for floating point arithmetic, and if you leave here empty, the applications will not use Desire’s FPU abilities (everything will be software based, which is slower)
e) Default instruction set mode -> arm . You can use thumb here for allegedly faster code but not every build system supports it. Leave it ARM.
f) Use EABI -> enabled. EABI is necessary for most flexible desing of binaries.

The other settings be as they were.

3- Toolchain options
a) Tuple’s vendor string -> You can leave here empty if you don’t want to; it’s not necessary to use a string here. I used “msm” but you can write anything. This string here is used in toolchain name as arm-xxxxx-linux-gnueabi, so make it short, I recommend 
b) Tuple’s alias -> make it something short like “arm-linux” This alias string is used to make calls to your toolchain easier. Instead of writing arm-msm-linux-gnueabi-gcc everytime, you can use arm-linux-gcc to compile your applications. Can write anything here (like toolchain if you want to use toolchain-gcc to compile your applications)

The other settings can stay as they are, for since default values are the best in our case. You can tweak them only if you know Desire cpu like the back of your hand 

4- Operating system
a) Target OS -> Use “linux” if you want the applications to run in Android and Linux; use “bare metal” if you’re to compile low level applications which won’t use linux headers. Default is linux.
b) Get Kernel headers from -> say “pre installed” because otherwise it’s going to download standard Linux headers from internet. We needed some changes, so this option is compulsory to be “pre installed”
c) Path to custom headers directory/tarball -> Path to your kernel source folder – which you made changes above.WARNING: I say specifically extracted, because standart tarball won’t work for us. We’re going to make some changes in kernel directories, which is non-standart (Instructions were above).
d) This is a tarball -> No . We’re going to use extracted folder.
e) Build shared libraries -> say “yes”; because we want dynamic linkage, not static one 
f) Check kernel headers -> say “no” otherwise some unnecessary check causes compilation to stop.

5- Binary utilities
a) Binutils version – pick the latest one, 2.20.1a. If you use older versions with newer GCC/GlibC, it’s not going to succeed.

Leave others as they are, they are not big deal..

6- C Compiler
a) GCC Version -> pick 4.6.1 for since it’s the latest and most bug free. Just stay away from 4.5 
b) Pick the languages you want support for. I’ve read online that Java is a tad troublesome in Android platform, for since Java in Android uses Dalvik, not Sun systems. You can try it at your second toolchain if you want  Definitely pick C++ tho
c) Link libstdc++ statically -> say yes; it really saves you from big configure scripts later  – apparently needed to avoid PPL problems as well 
d) Compile lidmudflap/libgomp/libssp -> say no. These libraries are not the most suitable libraries for ARM platform (at least at cross-compiler level. You can compile them later, if you want, with your cross-toolchain.)

You can leave others as default

7- C library
a) C library -> gLibC (recommended). You can use other libraries which are eGlibC (embedded Glibc, like Bionic) and uGlibC (micro-glibc) too, but GlibC is the most spanning solution above those. The libraries are bigger, but they support more.
b) glibC version -> Use 2.13 (experimental) it compiles just fine, and you get a new version of GlibC. Not the newest, but that’s ok 
c) Threading implementation -> nptl (recommended) . You can use linuxthreads too, but nptl is more advanced ( like giving support to Thread-Local-Storage and such)
d) Force Unwind Support -> Enabled . If you don’t use this option, for since we’re making this toolchain from scratch, it’s going to give you error during compiling that it couldn’t find necessary headers (we’re building them now, dumbass!)

Leave others default if you don’t know what they’re about

8- Companion Libraries
Well, go and pick the latest versions, even though when it says “Experimental”, otherwise your GCC compilation will give you error about these libraries being old.

After setting these settings, press ESC key twice till it goes way back and ask if you want to save configuration; say yes.

— STARTING COMPILATION —
Now to start compilation write
./ct-ng build.

This is going to take approx. 45 minutes, so go watch some episodes of Big Bang Theory or something. Normally, there should be no errors but if there is; most probably either you made a wrong configuration, or didn’t set your kernel folders well. Try again with other settings, google your problem etc.. 

After this process, you’re going to have a cross-compiler at your use at /home/<username>/x-tool/arm-<vendor>-linux-gnueabi/bin folder. Note that Crosstool-NG automatically makes this folder read only to make you prevent screwing your toolchain  You must edit your path variable to show “/home/<username>/x-tool/arm-<vendor>-linux-gnueabi/bin” folder as well for less headaches during compiling later 

Whilst compiling other application, most used configure options you’re going to use is “–host=arm-<vendor>-linux-gnueabi” and “–prefix=/some/folder/you/want/this/application/copied”. After compilation, you can send binaries to your phone from prefix folder.

More options about GCC and Configure is available at GCC and Autoconf man pages; check them as well 

Happy cross-compiling people 


You are reading this post on Joel G Mathew’s tech blog. Joel's personal blog is the Eyrie, hosted here.